Monday, May 25, 2020

Guy Montags Changes Through Fahrenheit 451 by Ray...

People can change due to the influence of other people. Guy Montag changes from being a book burning monster to an independent knowledge seeker due to the influences of Clarisse McClellan. Montag in Fahrenheit 451 by: Ray Bradbury shows how he acted before he changed, after meeting Clarisse, and after meeting Faber. Most people, without influence of other people, stay the way they already are. Guy, before he was influenced by Clarisse, acted as everyone else did in his futuristic society. â€Å"It was a pleasure to burn.† (Bradbury 3) Bradbury here states that burning books was an occupation of this society. The people obviously don’t want to do anything with the books or read them, so they burn them instead. This shows that people like†¦show more content†¦Montag grew closer to Clarisse each time they talked, and he enjoyed that. So this shows that Montag, when he talks to Clarisse, gets to be himself and become independent and has to think for himself instea d of everyone else thinking for him. People can change their views on topics with the influence of other people. When Faber and Montag met, the old English professor told Montag the wonders of books and how they influence people. â€Å"‘Books can be beaten down with reason. But with all my knowledge and skepticism, I have never been able to argue with a one-hundred-piece symphony orchestra, full color, three dimensions and being in and part of those incredible parlors’† (Bradbury 84) Faber tells Montag why people would rather choose their parlor in their houses over books. The parlor of these houses in this society are the main source of entertainment in the house, with TV’ s on the walls and a virtual ‘family’ that you call your own. Montag disagrees with this because he does not like his own parlor family that is in his house. Montag would rather be reading a book. So even though everyone else has their own parlors and other entertainment, M ontag became wiser by thinking for himself and enjoying a book. â€Å"‘I don’t want to change sides and just be told what to do. There’s no reason to change if I do that.’ ‘You’re wise already!’† (Bradbury 92) Montag was talkingShow MoreRelatedSociety In Fahrenheit 4511659 Words   |  7 Pagessociety is heading for destruction, similar to the destruction in Ray Bradbury’s novel Fahrenheit 451. In this novel, the characters live in a society that is truly awful, but the author shows us that our society is heading down that path also. However, in the story, the beliefs of the main character Guy Montag change drastically, from beginning the novel as an oblivious citizen to ending it by trying to change his society for the better. Guy lives in a society in which the government outlaws books becauseRead MoreSociety In Fahrenheit 4511647 Words   |  7 Pagessociety that we live in at this moment may be headed for destruction . In Ray Bradbury’s novel Fahrenheit 451, the characters live in a society that is truly awful, but the author shows us that our society could be headed down that path. However, in the story, the beliefs of the main character Guy Montag change drastically, from beginning the novel as an oblivious citizen to ending it by trying to change his society for the better. Guy lives in a society in which the government outlaws books because theyRead MoreSociety In Fahrenheit 4511661 Words   |  7 Pagessociety is headed for destruction, similar to the destruction in Ray Bradbury’s novel Fahrenheit 451. In this novel, the characters live in a society that is truly awful, but the author shows us that our society is heading down that path. However, in the story, the beliefs of the main character Guy Montag change drastically, from beginning the novel as an oblivious citizen to ending it by trying to change his society for the better. Guy lives in a society in which the governmen t outlaws books becauseRead MoreFahrenheit 451 symbolism paper1535 Words   |  7 Pages American Literature 11 11 November 2013 Symbolism in Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury, the author of the well-known science fiction novel Fahrenheit 451, was alarmed by how much time he felt the public devoted to watching television in the 1950’s. â€Å"If this [trend of television watching] goes on†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he wrote, â€Å"nobody will read books anymore† (XIII). This thought of a television-obsessed future public frightened Bradbury. He was particularly fearful of how technology might prevent people from formingRead MoreRay Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 Character Analysis708 Words   |  3 Pagesworld is like for Guy Montag in Ray Bradburys novel Fahrenheit 451. In the beginning of the novel, Guy Montag is a fireman who believes that there has never been and will never be a need for books and every book should burn. As the story progresses, he interacts with people and experiences events in his life that change his beliefs and views of the world. By the end of the novel, Guy Montag can recite parts of books off the top of his head. In Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, Guy Montag learns theRead MoreAnalysis Of Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1609 Words   |  7 PagesThematic Essay on Fahrenheit 451 Imagine a world where your family connections have been replaced by a television screen. Everything you know is only what you have been told by others so that you have no opinion of your own. And if you dare start thinking for yourself, the consequences are dire. This situation seems unrealistic, but in Ray Bradbury s futuristic novel Fahrenheit 451, this is the way the world works. Bradbury creates a society filled with ignorance where even in the midst of all theRead MoreFahrenheit1148 Words   |  5 PagesRay Bradbury is a master of characterization techniques. He uses his expertise, such as indirect characterization, in the creation of Fahrenheit 451. In addition to learning about the explicit qualities of Bradbury’s characters, readers receive deeper insight as we carefully read his stories. In Fahrenheit 451, we learn more indirect information about the protagonist, Guy Montag, through the words used to introduce this character. We have a clear view of Montag’s t houghts and feelings that lead himRead MoreFire Symbolism In Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury819 Words   |  4 Pages28 2017 What Does Fire Symbolize in Fahrenheit 451? Fire. The symbol of destruction, warmth, and renewal, is a prominent theme in the novel Fahrenheit 451, written by Ray Bradbury. Guy Montag, lives in a bleak, advanced United States where any and books have been made illegal and are replaced with entertainment and technology. The use of fire in the past was to give warmth and heat and has now been replaced for the use destruction and satisfaction. Montag’s job as a fireman is to burn books andRead MoreFarenheit 451 : Author And Original Year Of Publication1705 Words   |  7 PagesRittel English II HP, Period 2 08 May 2015 Honors English Novel Study Form Title: Fahrenheit 451 Author and Original Year of Publication: Bradbury, 1953 MLA citation: Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Publishing, 1978. Print. Pertinent biographical information on author (must include a citation that matches the Works Cited page): Ray Bradbury was born in Waukegan, Illinois on August 22, 1920. Bradbury chose the writer path at the age of twelve and thirteen where he later discoveredRead MoreFahrenheit 451 - Symbolism1432 Words   |  6 PagesSymbolism in Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury, perhaps one of the best-known science fiction, wrote the amazing novel Fahrenheit 451. The novel is about Guy Montag, a ‘fireman who produces fires instead of eliminating them in order to burn books (Watt 2). One night while he is walking home from work he meets a young girl who stirs up his thoughts and curiosities like no one has before. She tells him of a world where fireman put out fires instead of starting them and where people read books and think

Friday, May 15, 2020

Repentance and Journal Article Review Essay - 1060 Words

Journal Article Review 2 SELF-FORGIVENESS: THE STEPCHILD OF FORGIVENESS RESEARCH COUN 504 Hozie Grasty 10/18/2008 Journal Article Review 2 In the second article I chose to read, Hall and Fincham (2005) discuss the concept of self-forgiveness. Their analysis seeks to get to the heart of what it means and essentially what it takes to forgive oneself for wrongdoing and reckless abandon. Enright (1996) defines self-forgiveness as â€Å"a willingness to abandon self-resentment in the face of one’s own acknowledged objective wrong, while fostering compassion, generosity, and love toward oneself.† Hall and Fincham (2005) argue that self-forgiveness is an internal and volatile aberration that results in both a retaliatory and benevolent†¦show more content†¦The interpersonal ability of society to forgive Mick Vick for sponsoring such a deplorable blood sport at the expense of man’s best friend became a national debate that garnered him notoriety unforeseen in sports history. However, if the multitude of saints that denounced Mick Vick had only taken a time-out to reflec t on their personal vice, an environment of compassion and interpersonal forgiveness could have blossomed, instead of the unforgiving hearts and hypocrisy. On a personal note, I have to consider my own transgressions before I dare judge someone else. Not a single person on this earth possesses the moral immaculateness necessary to judge another human being or the gall to not want to forgive them for wrongdoing. 1 John (1:9-10) states that â€Å"if we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness. If we claim we have not sinned, we make him out to be a liar and his word has no place in our lives.† I know that the issue of self-forgiveness is a bit deeper and personal to the point of self-hatred and belief that no amount of prayer can put you back in God’s good grace. I know this from personal experience and rebuke toward myself for indiscretions thatShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty : Costly, Counterp roductive, And Corrupting1678 Words   |  7 PagesBright, Stephen B.: The death penalty as the answer to crime: costly, counterproductive and corrupting; 35 Santa Clara Law Review 1211 (1995) Summary paragraph: In Stephen Bright’s article, â€Å"The Death Penalty as the Answer to Crime: Costly, Counterproductive, and Corrupting† Bright asserts that capital punishment does not work because it is racially biased, the quality of the lawyers and attorneys supplied by the state to poor defendants is unfair, and that the law system currently in place doesRead MoreLiterary Criticism Of Jane Eyre1378 Words   |  6 PagesRochester is built on dishonesty and an unequal footing; as a result, the love between Mr. Rochester and Jane collapses, which leads to their second relationship. Mr. Rochester and Jane are able to resurrect their love through Mr. Rochester’s repentance and Jane’s moral strength. Mr. Rochester repents for his dishonesty through his torturous regret and his punishment from God. When he realizes the severity of his deed, he â€Å"asked of God, at once in anguish and humility, if [he] had not been longRead MoreLiberty University Sample Book Review Chhi 520 Essay1249 Words   |  5 Pageshardcover. Thomas Oden, an accomplished scholar in systematic and historical theology, and retired professor at Drew University, has offered a compelling and positively provocative work in How Africa Shaped the Christian Mind. A work of scholarly repentance, he ably repudiates the posture of western theologians and historians (i.e. Harnack, Bauer, Schleiermacher) toward Africa’s theological legacy (pp. 57-59). His present work is the fruit of thirty years of reading the early African fathers, and inRead MoreThe Apostles Creed3690 Words    |  15 Pages....................................................................................................... 3 History and Origin........................................................................................................... 4 The Creed Articles.......................................................................................................... 7 The Apostles Creed and the Early Church..................................................................... 9 Summary and Conclusion.Read MoreSalem Witch Trials : A Series Of Events That Occurred3696 Words   |  15 Pagesenter one’s body to become bewitched or possessed. As a last resort, many of the accused men and women of Salem were given the chance of a confession, therefore many pleaded to the village for repentance and forgiveness. Most of the accused men and women were saved from execution, but part of the repentance was being able to help find other witches. â€Å"As 1692 passed into 1693, the hysteria began to lose steam. The governor of the colony, upon hearing that his own wife was accused of witchcraft orderedRead MoreRestorative Justice : The Justice System1993 Words   |  8 Pages Restorative Justice in the Criminal Justice System Nathan Tabita Columbia College Abstract Throughout this paper, various articles will be discussed in further detail on the issue of restorative justice within the criminal justice system in the United States. Both benefits and disadvantages of restorative justice will be analyzed, in order to have a greater understanding of the alternative justice program, and to remove any preconceived ideas unsubstantiated by facts. FocusRead MoreInternal and External Communication on Bp Gulf Oil Spill Essay3877 Words   |  16 PagesPetroleum) tried to employ both internal and external communication strategies to deal with problems. The purpose of this report is to provide recommendations to improve BP’s internal and external strategies. The research will be based on the journals, articles and BP’s press release about the spill; the research will be backed up with some corresponding theories. Our team will act as a professional consultant, advise some communication strategies to help BP make improvements. In the following reportRead MoreThe True Inner Nature Of Simon2116 Words   |  9 Pages(authority) he sought (you have no part or portion), because his heart was not right with (before) God. †] This would explain the misconception that Simon has about God’s gifts. Romans 11:29 states; For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance. Simon’s heart is not truly not align with God’s will. Paul was not berating Simon he was correcting and challenging the spirit that was before him (Eph.4:12). 1 John 4:1 states Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether theyRead MoreDemocracy versus Authoritarian Regimes Essays2898 Words   |  12 Pagesgovernment constitutes a weaker civil society underneath them, versus a demo-cratic government’s stronger, more able civil society because authoritarian governments govern in such a manner that repress protests against the government. Literature Review Upon analyzing different literatures when developing my research paper and thoughts, I looked at regimes all around the world, such as Russia, North Korea, China, Iran, and more. Many of these countries provided a great deal of telling in-sight andRead More The People, Words and Effects of the Great Awakening Essay2789 Words   |  12 Pagespluralistic, ecumenical, and sociological efforts of men from various theological backgrounds, yet espousing a unified message of repentance, forgiveness, and hope for the masses. Research available on this period ranges from 18th century newspapers and letters to current literary criticism of discourse of the period. However, the resources selected for this review can be placed into three categories: 1) ministers 2) sermons and correspondence and 3) historic, sociological, and religious significance

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Womens Rights Movement - 1336 Words

The Women’s Rights Movement Women’s Suffrage is a subject that could easily be considered a black mark on the history of the United States. The entire history of the right for women to vote takes many twists and turns but eventually turned out alright. This paper will take a look at some of these twists and turns along with some of the major figures involved in the suffrage movement. The first recorded instance in American history where a woman demanded the right to vote was in 1647. Margaret Brent, a property owner in Maryland wanted two votes in the newly formed colonial assembly to represent her vote and the vote of Lord Baltimore whom she held power-of-attorney. (Pleck, 2007) The governor eventually turned down her demands. The†¦show more content†¦The AWSA supported the 15th amendment and wanted to fight for women’s rights in the states separately. (Pleck, 2007) The two movements eventually reunited in 1890 to become the National American Woman Suffrage Association led by Susan B. A nthony until 1900 when Carrie Chapman Catt took over. Catt was integral in the strategy to work for women’s suffrage on both the federal and state level upon her re-election to president of the NAWSA in 1915 which led to another faction split between the NAWSA and a group led by Alice Paul who believed that the major push of the fight needed to be focused at the federal level. (, 2007) Finally all the hard work of the women’s movement paid off in the summer of 1920 with the ratification of the 19th amendment. This was not an easily won victory however. Congress first took up the issue in 1915 but the bill lost in the voting and was shelved for almost three years. (Women s Suffrage, 2007) On the eve of the vote President Wilson made a widely publicized appeal for the passage of the bill and this time the bill barely passed with the need two-thirds majority. However, the bill failed to gain the necessary votes to pass the Senate even with another of President W ilson’s appeals for the passage of the bill. The bill would be voted down twice over the following year before finally gainingShow MoreRelatedWomens Rights Movements1199 Words   |  5 Pagesdoes have hope struggling to carry the world. Women are continuously dehumanized because they are not treated as equals in the work place, the media, and school however the women’s rights movement has given women the right of freedom of speech and right to vote I. Need for the movement Although, when the Women’s Rights movement started women were happy but it has then and even now moved quite slowly making women lose their hope. Women have transitioned into the state of mind of being the â€Å"housewife†Read MoreWomens Rights Movements951 Words   |  4 Pagesgovernment went through great length to prevent specific groups from having the right and ability to vote. One group in particular that were deprive voting rights in the past was women. The idea that women wanted to be not above a man, but equal was unfathomable to most men and women. In the past, women were seen as unintelligent servants to their husbands and children. They were deprived many rights especially the right to vote in public state or national elections. This did not change until theRead MoreEssay on The Womens Rights Movement1346 Words   |  6 PagesThe Womens Rights Movement was a significant crusade for women that began in the late nineteenth century and flourished throughout Europe and the United States for the rest of the twentieth century. Advocates for womens rights initiated this movement as they yearned for equality and equal participation and representation in society. Throughout all of history, the jobs of women ranged from housewives to factory workers, yet oppression by society, particularly men, accompanied them in their everydayRead MoreEssay on The Womens Rights Movement1962 Words   |  8 PagesThe Womens Rights Movement History looks different when the contributions of women are included. -the National Womens History Project Throughout history, society has impacted the lifestyle of the individual. Change in society has a particular impact on the individual. During the Vietnam era, change in society was drastic. Many movements began during this time period. One of these was the escalation of the Women’s Liberation Movement. Womens rights was always a concern, but duringRead MoreHistory of the Womens Movement for Suffrage and Womens Rights1200 Words   |  5 PagesPrior to the famous movement for womens suffrage in the society, women had little or no say in the society. If they happen to be working, it was gruelling things like housework that would sometimes extend over the course of the whole day, or, later on during the famous industrialization era that took place, in various factories they get paid very little and work long hours. On the other hand women had the go ahead to vote but in only some states, it was practically a big joke to think of a womanRead MoreThe Goals Of The Feminist And Women S Rights Movements1166 Words   |  5 PagesThe goals of the feminist and women s rights movements are first to create equality amongst all people. All people are deserving of quality health care, unconditional love and mutual respect. Human rights are at the heart of women s issues, whether you are a woman, man or child, everyone, is entitled to basic human rights as individuals. As a marginalized section of the population, women should be interested in the elimination of patriarchal ideologies and systems that continually seep intoRead MoreWomens Right Movement 1970s784 Words   |  3 Pages Womens Right Movement 1970S The Womens Right Movement has been a long enduring battle, which started in 1848 and is still something we are fighting for. Woman Rights in the 1970s wasnt the first wave of feminism which focused on suffrage;this wave was mostly focused on equal opportunity. This movement helped gain the ERA amendment which allowed women equal payment in working fields. This was extremely important because although women were already working and have always worked they werentRead More Womens Rights Movement in the US Essay611 Words   |  3 Pages Women rights Throughout the years of marriage and relationships there has been many changes towards the different roles that men and women play. Over this time though there are also things that have remained the same. The male female relationship has always had a type of â€Å"guidelines†. Over the past forty years these guidelines have become less and less followed. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Men and women’s attitudes towards each other are something that has always, for the most part, remained theRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement Womens Liberation Movement Essay examples2309 Words   |  10 PagesHistory of Civil Rights Movement The 1960s brought about changes economically and socially. The Civil Rights Movement was alive and moving. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s goal was to hopefully put an end to racial discrimination and to restore voting rights in the South. Clearly the 60s was not the beginning of the fight for civil rights in America. The 18th century in the United State was plagued by hatred, racism and slavery. Slavery affected the entire nation. Slavery destroyed familiesRead MoreHow the Civil Rights Movement Influenced the Womens Liberation Movement1782 Words   |  8 PagesThe civil rights movement influenced the women’s liberation movement in four key ways. First, it provided women with a model for success on how a successful movement should organize itself. Second, the civil rights movement broadened the concept of leadership to include women. Third, by fighting for equality, the civil rights movement changed the culture of advocacy and made social justice a legitimate caus e. Finally, by eventually excluding women, the civil rights movement spurred women to organize

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Bride Price Essay Research Paper The free essay sample

The Bride Price Essay, Research Paper The Bride Price This book was a narrative about a Nigerian household and the tradition of the bride monetary value. Part of the narrative takes topographic point in Lagos where Aku-nna, the supporter, grew up. After her male parent dies she is forced to travel to Ibuza to populate with her male parent # 8217 ; s brother in a whole different civilization from her ain. Her female parent, Ma-Blackie married her hubby # 8217 ; s brother, Okonkwo, doing him Aku-nna # 8217 ; s step-father This entitled him to her bride monetary value, which was expected to be extortionate sum. Okonkwo needed this bride monetary value to derive his Eze rubric. Unfortunately for him, Aku-nna fell in love with, Chike, the school instructor. But, because he was a boy of a slave the Ibos wouldn # 8217 ; t give their blessing of a matrimony. It is an Ibo tradition superstitious notion that if a adult female is married without the bride monetary value being paid that she will decease with the birth of her first kid. We will write a custom essay sample on The Bride Price Essay Research Paper The or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Aku-nna and Chike ran off from a adult male that Aku-nna was forced to get married, and they got married. When Chike # 8217 ; s father tried to pay a big bride monetary value to Okonkwo he would non accept, wishing decease upon his stepdaughter. In the terminal Aku-nna was pregnant and she d ied in childbearing. This book taught me more about African civilization. I think that the bride monetary value and the superstitious notion behind it are interesting constructs. The thought that you can decease because a certain sum is non paid to your male parent is a small absurd. This book fundamentally ended up being a common people narrative about the bride monetary value, because at the terminal the writer says that because she died, it was thought that this superstitious notion was true and now the Ibos believe it as fact. The terminal of the book reminded of Farewell to Arms. The manner in which Aku-nna died, the scene with rain, it was really closely related to the scene in which Catherine dies. Yet the babe lives in The Bride Price and the male parent can populate on with a happy memory of his married woman. It seemed like after all the obstructions that the characters face and one time they are eventually happy, something awful has to go on. Regardless, I found this book to be really interesting and difficult to set down. The love narrative that evolved was slightly predictable yet sweet. It taught me about matrimony within the civilization and how relations can get married each other but the comfortable boies # 8217 ; of slaves are non allowed to m

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Value Chain Analysis for Starbucks Essay Example

Value Chain Analysis for Starbucks Essay Global, European and Irish Markets are oligopolies; they are dominated by a few large companies. GlobalEuropeanIrish (Hot Cereals) Kellogg’sKellogg’sFlahavan’s General MillsCereal Partners WorldwideOdlum’s KraftWeetabix LtdKelkin OtherOther Breakfast Cereals Industry Profile: Europe 2009), (Breakfast Cereals Industry Profile: Global 2009) Scope of Competitive Rivalry (Appendix 3) * The scope of competitive rivalry is multinational Buyer needs and requirements(Appendix 4) * Supermarkets/Hypermarkets – need to meet consumer demand * Catering companies – need to buy in large bulk capacity * Hospitality industry – need smaller individual selection of boxes to meet consumer needs * Individual customers – all have different needs and requirements (taste preferences or health reasons) Degree of product differentiation(Appendix ) * Packaging – Different colours and styles are used to differentiate products * Taste – Different flavours of cereal are made to distinguish one product from another * Companies use huge advertising budgets to convince customers that there product is different and unique Product innovation(Appendix 6) * Success driven by innovation * Large scale budgets spent on research and development * Co-branding products with other companies * Diversifying brands in new directions e. g. Coco Pops, Coco Wheels Supply/Demand conditions (Appendix ) Supply * Farmers grow most of the ingredients that are used in breakfast cereals, such as wheat, grain and oats * Other suppliers include manufacturers of plastic and cardboard * The U. S. import sugar, so companies operating there are reliant on suppliers to supply them sugar Demand * We will write a custom essay sample on Value Chain Analysis for Starbucks specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Value Chain Analysis for Starbucks specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Value Chain Analysis for Starbucks specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Customers can change brand or buy substitutes with little cost effect * Hypermarkets/supermarkets (retailers) decide who gets shelf space * Retailers have to stock popular brands to satisfy consumer demand Pace of Technological conditions(Appendix ) * High pace of technological change in the cereal industry * New technologies are necessary to keep up with product innovation * New technologies are allowing the cereal industry to ship their raw materials globally were it can be manufactured cheaper * The internet is allowing these companies to order supplies, distribute products and communicate with customers quicker Vertical integration(Appendix 9) The Global cereal industry is a vertically integrated industry. Companies participate in more than one stage of the industry * Kellogg’s are involved in the manufacturing and marketing of their products, they operate in many countries * General Mills are involved the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of their products * Kraft Foods manufacture and market food and beverages in many different countries Economies of scale (Appendix 10) The dominant companies in the industry are able to use a low cost strategy by using economies of scale * The major players can purchase supplies in large bulk, getting a reduced price on the costs of material required and producing at a lower cost * The breakfast cereal industry also uses streamline marketing, were two companies within the industry will market products together. This cuts marketing costs considerably Learning and experience curve effects(Appendix 11) Must have knowledge of equipment required for manufacturing * Set up conta cts with suppliers to get their materials to make the products * Access distribution channels, such as negotiating with grocery stores to get them to shelf their products * Try to develop their brand into a household product, to gain brand recognition and build a customer base PESTEL(Appendix 12) When researching the cereal industry, we conducted a PESTEL analysis, these are our findings: Political * Employment laws * Food and drug laws The US have freedom of business practices and trade regulations * Global Codes of Ethics * FDA regulates trade and tariff laws Economic * Interest rates * Exchange rates * Inflation rates * Due to recession people have less disposable income * Farmers are sowing less because their incomes have dropped Social * Demographics and the social environment * Different cultural attitudes towards breakfast * High unemployment * People want value for money * Less inclined to be brand loyal * More health conscious society Technological * Presents a barrier to entry to new companies New technology makes it easier to ship cereal and products globally * The internet is allowing these companies to order supplies, distribute products an d communicate with customers quicker * Improvements in technology may help farmers grow raw materials such as grain more easily and efficiently Environmental * Comply with environmental laws and regulations * Subject to various federal, state, local laws and regulations * In the US Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation, Recovery Act and also the Superfund Legal Companies trading in the European market need to be aware of changing employment laws (Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005) * Comply with packaging laws * Irish Breakfast Cereal Association new advertising code focusing on advertising for children Figure1. 3Industry Lifecycle Sales/ Revenue Maturity Shakeout Decline Growth Embryonic Time * Growth Slows and becomes stable * Remains like this for a sustainable period of time * Companies tend to develop accompaniments of the original product * This helps maintain a higher level of growth (Beginnermoney) What factors are the driving industry changes and what impacts will they have? (Appendix 13) The factors that are most likely to exert greatest influence in the breakfast cereal industry over the next one to three years are: economic factors, the economic driving forces will have a positive and negative effect on the industry. * Economic growth * Interest rates * Exchange rates * Inflation rates * Government legislation * Threats of substitutes is also a driver of change in the industry * Power of suppliers â€Å"By 2013 the global breakfast cereals market is forecast to have a value of $28. billion, an increase of 17. 1% since 2008†(Breakfast Cereals Industry Profile: Global 2009) That is impressive increase which will have a positive effect on the industry leaders regarding profitability and market share. Government legislation can affect the industry with introduction of new tax brackets this can have a negative effect on profits for the companies and buying power of the cu stomers. A change in exchange rates may affect the breakfast industry in the following ways: * Exchange rates changes can increase or lower the price of a product sold abroad * The price of imported raw materials may change The price of competitor’s products may change in the home market A change in interest rates might affect the breakfast industry in the following ways; * If the company have a series of loans then an increase in interest rates will mean higher repayments, reducing profits * If a company wants to borrow money to invest in new technology, then they are less likely to go ahead with the project when interest rates increase Inflation affects any economy in the world when it is high and volatile. To maintain the same level of living standards you would have to pay more * You would have to pay more for same amount of goods and services you had used prior to inflation. * The majority of the time, your income does not increase at the same rate as inflation * If a country is affected by high inflation they may lose competiveness and may seek to deploy their operations to a more cost friendly country Power of suppliers is only moderate in rel ation to the five forces model. This is due to the uncertainty of the raw material needed to produce the cereals. Wheat for example will vary in price because of the extensive forces that affect the growing. The driving forces are making competition more intense, with the ongoing intense battles for market share. The industry leaders will try their utmost to keep rivalry high and to retain their customer loyalty. The potential industry growth would suggest that the driving forces will lead to higher industry profitability in the future. Figure 1. 5Strategic Group Map Competitors| Competitive Characteristics of Industry Firms| Kellogg’s CompanyGeneral Mills, Inc. Kraft Foods, IncNestleQuaker OatsWeetabix| Price LocationBrand (Reputation/ popularity)QualityNutrient ValueTypesPackaging| Kraft and the other companies in the industry are clustered together indicating that there is a strong cross-group competitive rivalry between them. Kraft are probably in the worse position, they are competing directly with many others in the industry but also may struggle to reach Kellogg’s position, as Kellogg’s is a brand leader in this industry. The only way to compete is to lower prices. General Mills are in the best position on the map as they have a good reputation and are able to compete with lowest prices in the market. They also have room to improve their reputation and then have more opportunity to lower prices further. There are gaps in the lower half of the graph, new entrants could target this industry at this position, offering low prices and then with time, recognition will grow. Global Breakfast cereal industry Figure 1. 6 Strategic Moves Companies| Kellogg’s| General Mills| Kraft Co. | Pricing| $$$| $$| $$$| KeyIndustries| * Ready to eat cereal * Snacks * Convenience foods| * Ready to eat cereals * Snacks * Retail * Foodservice| * Ready to eat cereals * Snacks * Beverages * Dairy| Current Strategy| * Product innovation * Cost reduction * Invest in product research (Kellogg’s Marketing Strategy and Marketing Plans)| * Focus on gluten free market * Advertise in gluten free magazines * Products to suit the need of Celiac sufferers(Slideshare)| * New product focus * Improve core brands * Improve brand awareness| Future Plans| October 2010Considering using laser technology to stamp their logo on each individual flake in order to stamp out imitation products. If successful, it should decrease the sales of imitation products and lose private companies market share. It should also increase sales of Kellogg’s products and increase their market share. BPCouncil)| 1st April 2010 – PRHaving recognised the desire for new properties, have optioned off the rights to three of their cereals to entertainment channel. The characters will appear in 3D movies and General Mills will include 3D glasses in their cereal boxes. Production will finish in April 2011. The money that is made from optioning off the rights will be used to purchase property| 23rd March 2010 – PR by Nicola WilkinsonAim to target the British market with new breakfast cereal biscuit product. (Slideshare)21st October 2010 – PR Announce that they are to raise prices in response to the rise in the price of grain and other commodity prices (Bloomberg 2010)They are to increase the number of cities that it operates in, in China. | European Breakfast Cereal Industry Companies| Kellogg’s| Cereal Partners Limited| Weetabix Limited| Pricing| $$$| $$| $$| KeyIndustries| * Ready to eat cereal * Snacks * Staples| * Ready to eat cereals | * Ready to eat cereals * Snacks * Hot cereal| Current Strategy| * Outsourcing * Development of new products(Kelloggs 2010)| * Cost reduction * Expand market share through joint ventures * Product Innovation(ReportBuyer December 2007)| * Product research and development * Cost reduction| Future Plans| Have recently created 50 more jobs at its European HQ in Dublin, extending the number of employees to 250, and enhancing their reputation. | N/A| N/A| Figure 1. 7Cereal Industry Key Success Factors (KSFs)

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

The Agricultural Policy in European Union and the United State of America

The Agricultural Policy in European Union and the United State of America Brief Outline of the topic of the proposed research The European Union is one of the largest economies in the world and a considerable trade partner for the United States of America.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on The Agricultural Policy in European Union and the United State of America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two blocs are also agricultural trading partners and leading competitors where food market is involved. According to Haas (2007), â€Å"The European Union (EU) and Unites States’ (US) governments provide support to their respective agricultural sectors† (p.43). This strategy is one of the relevant factors in the success experienced in this sector. Several policies exist in both regions of the world. It is crucial to compare them to establish the effect that they have had on the respective countries. With the population of the world said to be over seven billion and increasing ever y day (Anatole 2012, p. 17), agriculture is increasing in significance. Countries around the world have adapted policies aimed at increasing their agricultural output and shifting balance of trade to their advantage (International Food Agricultural Trade Policy Council 2011). This is the case in the US and the EU, as they try to meet the agricultural demands of the 21st century. Therefore, how do the agricultural policies in the US and the EU compare? What effect do they have on agricultural output? Currently, the economies are experiencing budgetary issues, which continue to inform the agricultural policies being developed. Based on all these factors, it is vital to conduct a study comparing the agricultural policies in these countries.Advertising Looking for proposal on agriculture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, the dissertation is proposed with the title ‘The Agricultural Policy in Europea n Union and the United State of America.’ Aims and objectives of the research The first objective will be to identify the existing agricultural policies in France, Germany, and Spain. The next objective will be to investigate the agricultural policies in the United States of America. To achieve the main aim of the study, the third objective will be to analyse the common agricultural policy in the European Union and its effects on the member countries with the use of Germany, Spain and France. To achieve these objectives and aims, several questions will need to be answered in relation to the study aims. What are the existing agricultural policies in Spain, France, and Germany? What are the existing and proposed agricultural policies in the USA? The question of the details of the common agricultural policy in the EU will also be answered. How do the agricultural policies compare for these countries. Importance of the proposed research With the integration of members and enlar gement of the European Union, the existing agricultural policies in the member countries will be overtaken by the common agricultural policy. Few investigations have been done detailing the effects as well as comparing it with the policies in the USA. As indicated above, the EU and the US are principal partners and competitors in the field of agriculture with each of the economies receiving a significant contribution from the sector. A significant government support in the countries goes to the agricultural industry. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), â€Å"the European Union and the United States together account for more than 60% of all government support to agriculture among the main developed economies† (Young Hansen 2011, p. 26). Some of the latest developments in the policy reforms in the EU include the proposed reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the US congress said to have passed significant agricultural b ills in the year 2012 including the Farm Bill (Bureau Louis-Pascal 2009, p. 5: Monke Johnson 2010, p. 12).Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on The Agricultural Policy in European Union and the United State of America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A common feature for both of these economies is the bio fuel policies, which are inseparable from the agricultural objectives of the member counties and states (Young Hansen 2011, p. 26). An attempt will therefore be made in this dissertation to compare the agricultural policies for the bloc with that of the United States to see if the two are similar. With the increase in population and geographical size that the European Union is likely to have from the member countries, the bloc could use the experience of the United States to set up relevant policies to support her growth. Summary and outline of proposed research topic Agricultural policies are statements by govern ments and authorities that are aimed at ensuring welfare, sustainability, and distribution in the agricultural sector (Young Hansen 2011, p. 26). Agriculture in the European Union specifically in Germany continues to be regulated by the existing agricultural policies, and public support is its mainstay. The European Union has adopted the CAP that is aimed at establishing a market-oriented and sustainable agricultural sector (Mewvissen, Van Asseldonk Huirnde 2008, p. 53). As an example of a member state in the European Union, Hardaker reveals that Germany’s agricultural policy is geared towards consumer protection and ‘greening’ of the policies (an example is BMVEL 2001)(2000, p. 42).Advertising Looking for proposal on agriculture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The CAP in the European Union was proposed in 1960with the founding members of the European Community such as Germany and France having emerged from severe food shortages and hence requiring food security (Study of European Union Common Agricultural Policy2008, p. 2). The agricultural policy in France has been based on the aim of boosting her economic development in the past. The adoption of the CAP in the EU could mean a standardisation of the existing agricultural policies in the member countries. The strategy could have both positive and negative impacts on this sector. According to (Garridoet al 2009), after Spain joined the EU in 1986, it is therefore party to the CAP in the bloc (p. 94). The United States has a wells of programs where support in the two countries was recorded to increase included programs for rural development and the conservation of farmland (Orden, Blandford Josling 2010, p. 97). Despite the observed changes, Dewbre, Thompson, and Dewbre (2007) point out th at the non-commodity programs still maintain a smaller percentage of the farm recipients (p. 27). The US was observed to have a slightly higher percentage of farm receipts in the above programs as compared to the EU with non-commodity shares of input being 0.7% lower than that of the EU (Young Hansen 2011, p. 26). In the United States, several laws govern the agricultural sector. A multiyear farm bill in the US provides a means of comprehensively addressing agricultural issues with several modifications being made frequently to the existing laws (Young Hansen 2011, p. 23). One of the omnibus farm bills is the P.L. 110-246, the Food, conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Young Hansen 2011, p. 26). According to CRS Report RS22131 (2008) and CRS Report RL34696 (2008), the bill â€Å"covers a range of areas, including commodity crops, horticulture and livestock, conservation, nutrition, trade and food aid, agricultural research, farm credit, rural development, energy, forestry, and other programs†. Farm sustenance in the US â€Å"consists of programs providing direct and indirect support to the producers and consumers in the sector with only selected commodities being supported† (Young Hansen 2011, p. 26). According to Potter and Ervin, â€Å"Grains, cotton, oilseeds, dairy, and peanuts are eligible for both fixed â€Å"decoupled† payments and â€Å"counter-cyclical assistance† payments: the total producer subsidy is based on past production† (1999, p. 31). Further support is provided by Young and Hansen to the producers of these commodities and those not included in the list via crop loans and subsidies related to loans (2011, p. 28). Several minimum pricing systems support the dairy and sugar industries with quotas being subjected on some commodities to limit the destruction of the local markets from imports therefore protecting the local farmers (Swinbank Josling 2012). Crop insurance is also common in the country with fa rmers receiving payments in the case of disasters (Swinbank Josling 2012). The 1985 farm bill passed by the United States congress was the first of a series of bills passed to ensure that farmers adopt farming practices that are environmentally friendly (Josling Swinbank 2011, p. 28). According to Swinbank and Josling, â€Å"Conservation programs administered by USDA can be broadly grouped into land retirement and easement programs and so-called â€Å"working lands† programs† (2012, p. 28). They go ahead to state that the land retirement and easement programs stop crop production from certain lands with the aim of converting it to the original vegetation such as forests and wetlands (Swinbank Josling 2012). This revelation is contrary to working lands programs that are aimed at encouraging environmental conservation on agricultural land that is currently used for production (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 32). As discussed above, CAP governs the policies in the EU member st ates (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). The primary use of the policy was observed in the buying of farm commodities from the member states when the prices fell below the expected thus cushioning the farmers from any losses (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). As with the US, the EU also levied a tax on imports to prevent cheaper imports from undermining the output from the member countries because of the high prices established after the interventions (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). Several problems were experienced with CAP. As Potter and Ervin state, â€Å"During the 1970s and 1980s, the CAP accounted for as much as 70% of the total EU budget. The CAP was also criticised by EU trading partners for distorting world markets and interfering with global agricultural trade† (1999, p. 35). A change in the CAP that has been experienced since 1992is the gradual move to a more market-oriented support for the agricultural sectors in the member countries (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). In line with thes e changes, the policy has changed to comply with the requirements of the World Trade Organisation (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). The CAP has also mutated to fit other requirements of the member states and international standards, which include the need to improve the rural living standards to protect the animal rights (Young Hansen 2011, p. 29). One of the similarity with the US policy is observed in â€Å"1992 (the MacSharry Reforms) and 1999 (Agenda 2000) reduced EU commodity support prices towards market levels that required that some farmland be taken out of production† (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). As indicated above, the focus of program support in the US is on only a few commodities, which have been given. The EU has an agricultural policy that provides support to a larger scope of commodities and livestock products. The existing farm structures and organisations in both countries and member states are different. According to Potter and Ervin, â€Å"the United States ha s roughly twice the farmland base of the European Union with fewer but significantly larger farms than the EU† (1999, p. 35). Comparatively, the size of land available for farming in the EU is smaller, but with a relatively larger number of farms (Hans van Frank van n.d). The researches discussed above are relevant to the dissertation and the suggested research since they will help in the making of comparisons between the agricultural policies in the EU and US. The limitation of the methodology is that most of the researches were based on secondary sources of information. The results are therefore subject to errors. The evidence supports the existence of substantial differences between the agricultural policies in the United States of America and the European Union. The two blocs have embarked on Bio fuel policies thus pushing the agricultural sector to experience critical reforms based on the observed changes (Hans van Frank van n.d). Research findings In the literature rev iew, significant differences emerge between the EU and US agricultural policies. There are also a number of similarities in the two areas. These observations create the need for analysis of the policies. In the European Union, the key component of the agricultural policies in the countries that have been discussed is the Combined Agricultural Policy. According to Potter and Ervin, the policy forms the backbone of the decisions made in relation to agriculture in the EU with members having to fulfil the requirements of the policy (1999, p. 35). The body that regulates the agricultural industry in the EU is described as being a constituent of the organisation. The aims are to protect the local farmers and consumers (Wohlleben 2006, p. 243). In the US, the policy is mainly in the form of bills and laws passed by congress concerning the promotion of agricultural sustenance and protecting the farmers (Atici 2005, p. 10). A characteristic of the policy is the provision of quotas for some o f the imports as a way of limiting the dilution of the market with cheaper agricultural goods. The farmers here receive subsidies for selected produce. Insurance companies and the government protect them from losses by insuring the crops (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 35). Due to the frequent loss of produce to disasters, a measure that the government has taken is the provision reimbursements for farmers affected by such calamities. The CAP in the EU is expected to be reformed in the next years. The US congress has also made significant changes to the agricultural policy as Potter and Ervin (1999, p. 35) report. The European Union is also discussed to have a larger number of its population being involved in farming as compared to the US, which has larger sizes of farms and a larger area of land available for farming (Potter Ervin 1999, p. 36). The policies in both countries are reported to be moving towards ‘greening’ the agricultural production process with the emphasis bein g made on environmental conservation efforts. According to Potter and Ervin, this means that more land is being abandoned strategically to allow the growth of natural vegetation (1999, p. 39). For Germany and France who are the founding members of the European Union, the CAP is a characteristic that has shaped farming with Spain joining them over the years. The agricultural policy in the US has developed over the years with reforms in the sector contributing to the observable agricultural developments in this country. The policies in the US and the EU are similar in a number of ways as discussed in the literature review. A considerable similarity is the aim and objectives, which are to protect their farmers and consumers as well as ensuring continued agricultural output. Some of the other observations in the policies in the countries are the purpose for which they were initially set up. The most recent of the reforms as Young and Hansen state are those detailed in the Mid-term Revie w of 2003 (2011, p. 26). These are also highlighted in Garrido, Bielza, and Sumpsi’s literature where they explain that they were meant to complete decoupling for cereals besides reducing support for rice with milk and sugar being spared later (2003, p. 73). These reforms were recently followed by the Agenda 2000 reforms in the year 2003 (Garrido, Bielza Sumpsi 2003, p. 73). The reforms were meant to reduce the prices of beef in the local markets with the introduction of environmental conditions (Garrido, Bielza Sumpsi 2003, p. 73). In the US, series of reforms in the policies are suggested with transformation from traditional to modern policies taking place stepwise. The traditional policies are conservative and hampered by the low levels of technological innovation in this age. The modern policies in the US are informed by the desire to cushion the population of the high consumer prices of commodities to protect the farmers from the cheap imports that are available (Haas 2007, p. 17). Under the laws and bills passed by the United States congress, a number of consumer products are subsidised with others having the quota system of management (Haas 2007, p. 17). The strategy according to Haas protects the local agricultural economy to ensure that agricultural traders are not exploited (2007, p. 17). For the European Union, the policy is broader. It covers more commodities than the United States. Farmers have the advantage of receiving price subsidies and financial support from the government with France being a prime beneficiary of the policy (Haas 2007, p. 17). Germany and France were some of the nations in the EU that Moyer and Josling noted to have multifunctional agriculture with Austria and Italy joining them. Though many countries were not noted to practice globalised agriculture in Moyer and Josling’s book, Mewvissen, Van Asseldonk, and Huirnde state that this paradigm is emerging in many of her member countries (2008, p. 53). The World T rade Organisation has contributed significantly in the way CAP is shaped in the European Union, and this is based on experiences where CAP contributed to trade imbalance between it and the trading partners (Bullock Salhofer 1998, p. 23). According to Bullock and Salhofer, the comparison between the policies in agriculture for the two blocs are incomplete without considering the protection accorded to the industry (1998, p. 23). They state that the EU’s agriculture is more protected and that the gap is narrowing each day (Bullock Salhofer 1998, p. 23). Some of the agricultural sectors in the US are reported to be progressing to being uncompetitive with sectors in the EU becoming more competitive (Haas 2007, p. 17). In most of the literature reviewed, the dairy industry and sugar industries in the countries are reported to be out of line with the rest of the sectors. Review of concepts and theories From the above literature review, several theories and concepts are suggested, and others supported. One of the concepts that emerge is consumer protection characteristics of the CAP for the European Union (Baylis, K. et al. 2005). The researches support the theory that the CAP was designed to protect the EU member states and that this strategy has served to the advantage and disadvantage of some of the members (Haas 2007, p. 17). In the example above, France is described to be a beneficiary of the CPA. In the past, it has resisted the proposed changes by various members. The benefit is in the form of subsidies, and the government here has moved to protect the citizens after some of the changes were put in place. Moyer and Josling discussed four theories that include dependent agriculture, competitive agriculture, multifunctional agriculture, and globalised agriculture where a large international chain is formed by the industry. In their book ‘Agricultural Policy Reform’, Moyer and Josling highlight some of the theories in the US and EU in the fi eld of agriculture (2002). They stated a paradigm shift from a state-assisted mode of agriculture to one that is market-liberal, with the agricultural sector in the US shifting from a small industry to a competitive one over the decades. In their book, the two authors continued to explore their proposed paradigm shifts in agriculture for the two countries by comparing them to conflicting paradigms brought about by globalisation of agriculture (Moyer Josling 2002). According to Moyer and Josling (2002), the theories that the authors discussed include dependent agriculture where the industry needed government’s support and competitive agriculture where the industry started competing for resources. These were later on followed by the multifunctional agriculture theory with the industry being able to provide public goods and the present globalised agriculture where a large international chain is formed by the industry. In the US, the competitive paradigm shift/theory is most evi dent in the non-program crops with dependent agriculture persisting in the dairy and sugar industry. The theory is supported by Potter and Ervin who state that the sugar industry relies mostly on government policy to protect farmers in a bid to maximise output (1999, p.34). In the EU, the foremost theories mentioned include the ‘MasSharry Reforms’ that took place in 1992 (Wohlleben 2006, p. 243). According to Wohlleben, these reforms introduced direct payments while at the same time cutting the prices of grains in the bloc to come close to those in the world market levels (2006, p. 243). Moyer and Josling conclude that, in the EU, dependent agriculture remains present though with reducing dominance (2002, p. 35). They also noted the emergence of competitive agriculture among the main agricultural states in the EU though the states used for comparison were not among them (2002, p. 27). Research design and methods The proposed research paper will be based on secondary ana lysis on the ground of case study research. A case study research will be the most appropriate format to establish the relationship between the agricultural policies in the European Union and the United States. The type of research will also provide a lot of information since most of the concepts to be discussed are mainly in the outstanding universal publications. Haas (2007, p. 17) states that the use of a case study in research is effective especially in fields such as international relations and real life events are to be studied. References Anatole, R 2012, Review Essay: World Population Policies: Their Origin, Evolution, and Impact by John F. May, Canadian Studies in Population, vol. 1 no. 1-2, p. 125. Atici, C 2005, Weight Perception and Efficiency Loss in Bilateral Trading: The Case of US and EU Agricultural Policies, Journal Of Productivity Analysis, vol. 24 no. 3, pp. 283-292. Banse, M, Van Meijl, A, Tabeau, C, Woltjer, G 2008, ‘Will EU Bio fuel Policies affect Glob al Agricultural Markets?’, European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 117-144. Baylis, K. et al. 2005, ‘06/02414 Including non-trade concerns: the environment in EU and US agricultural policy’, International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, vol. 4 no. 3–4, pp. 262–276. Bullock, D Salhofer, K 1998, A note on the efficiency of income redistribution with simple and combined policies, Agricultural And Resource Economics Review : ARER, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 266-269. Bureau, J Louis-Pascal, M 2009, CAP reform beyond 2013: An idea for a longer view, Notre, Europe. CRS Report RL34696 2008, The 2008 Farm Bill: Major Provisions and Legislative Action, Harvard Press, Harvard. CRS Report RS22131 2008, What Is the â€Å"Farm Bill†?,Harvard Press, Harvard. Dewbre, J, Thompson, W, Dewbre, J 2007, Consistency or Conflict in OECD Agricultural Trade and Aid Policies, American Journal Of Agricultural Economics, vol. 5 no. 1, p. 1161. Ewa, K 2012, Game theory as a tool to analyse conflict in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union, Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, vol. 24 no. 1, p. 119. Garrido, A, Bardajà ­, J, Durn, J, Estavillo, A, Iglesias, N, Medina, F 2009, ‘Background report for the Country Study on Spain’, OECD Thematic Review on Risk management in Agriculture, vol. 1 no. 1, p. 94. Garrido, A, Bielza, M, Sumpsi, M 2003, ‘The impact of crop insurance subsidies on land allocation and production in Spain’, OECD Papers 420, vol. 5, no. 11, p. 73 Haas, D 2007, Agricultural Policies In The EU And US: A Comparison Of Policy Objectives And Their Realisation, AV Akademikerverlag, London. Hans van, M, Frank van, T n.d., International diffusion of gains from biotechnology and the European Unions Common Agricultural Policy, Agricultural Economics, 31, Current Issues in the Economics of Agriculture, Food, and Resources: Reshaping Agricultures C ontributions to Society, vol. 31 no. 1, pp. 307-316. Hardaker, J 2000, Some issues in dealing with risk in agriculture, Working Paper No. 2003- 3, University of New England, England. Hellerstein, D 2010, ‘Challenges facing USDA’s Conservation Reserve Program’, Amber Waves, vol. 8 no. 2, pp. 28-33. International Food Agricultural Trade Policy Council 2011, Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and African regional integration: Have negotiations helped or hindered regional integration?, IPC Discussion Paper, Washington, DC. Josling, T Swinbank, A 2011, The European Union. Chapter 3 in Orden, David, David Blandford and Tim Josling, (eds.) WTO Disciplines on Agricultural Support: Seeking a Fair Basis for Trade, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. Lars, B n.d., Book review: Agricultural Policy Reform- Politics and Process in the EU and US in the 1990s. Wayne Moyer and Tim Josling (Eds.), Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, England. Marius, S 2005, Rural de velopment and agricultural policy in the context of negotiating the European union acquits, Romanian Journal Of European Affairs (RJEA), vol. 1 no. 1, p. 93. Mewvissen, M, Van Asseldonk, M, Huirnde, R 2008, Income Stabilisation in European Agriculture, Academic Publishers, Wageningen. Monke, J Johnson, R 2010, Actual Farm Bill Spending and Cost Estimates, Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress, R41195, Washington, DC. Moyer, H Josling, T 2002, Agricultural policy reform: politics and process in the EU and US in the 1990s, Aldershot, Hants, Ashgate, England. Orden, D, Blandford, D, Josling, B 2010, Determinants of United States Farm Policies†, In K. Anderson (ed.) The Political Economy of Agricultural Price Distortions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Policy Schemes and Trade in Dairy Products 2011, Agricultural Policy Schemes: European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy1, Credo Reference Collections, London. Potter, C Ervin, D 1999, Freedom to f arm: Agricultural policy liberalisation in the US and EU, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 53-70. Regional Growth and Policies in the European Union2007, ‘Does the Common Agricultural Policy Have a Counter-Treatment Effect?, American Journal Of Agricultural Economics, vol. 1 no. 1, p. 116. Schultz, T 1964, Transforming Traditional Agriculture, Yale University Press, Yale. Scrieciu, S 2007, Economic Impacts of Adopting the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union: A CGE Approach to the Case of Romania, Journal Of Economic Integration, vol. 2 no. 1, p. 407. Study of European Union Common Agricultural Policy 2008, France agricultural policy anaysis, OAIster, West Virginia. Swinbank, A Josling, T 2012, EU Agricultural Policies and European Integration: A Thematic Review of the Literature, Harvard UP, Harvard. Wohlleben, N 2006, Agrarstrukturpolitikimvereinten Deutschland. Eine Analyse der Gemeinschaftsaufgabe Verbesserung der Agrarstruktur und des Kà ¼stenschutzes im Lichte der NeuenPo litischen Ãâ€"konomie (German), Zeitschrift Fà ¼r Politikwissenschaft, vol. 16 no. 4, p. 1479. Young, L Hansen, K 2011, Disconnections in US and EU Agricultural Policy and Trade Negotiations: A Transaction Cost Politics Approach, Estey Centre Journal Of International Law Trade Policy, vol. 12 no. 1, p. 12.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Reflection Paper on Group Cases Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reflection Paper on Group Cases - Essay Example usiness practice to be operating without having a primary infrastructure as well as use of only a particular system to take care of all other necessary elements. Any company worth its salt should be equipped with an enterprise resource planning system (ERP) to ensure that its operations are carried out smoothly. This is because, without such an effective management system, a company’s business may be unable to coordinate its work across all functions, something that may lead to serious losses, even collapse of the business. The VTB case clearly illustrates this phenomenon and the company was in a terrible rush to make sure that it has its house in order just before peak seasons such as Christmas, Valentine’s Day as well as Mother’s Day. Secondly, I have learnt that it is good to always have a single centralised command from where an application can be run to manage the business functions.VTB for instance had a lot of complicated middleware as well as incompatible applications which did not provide the company with any benefits at all. Investment into a robust IT system therefore brings with it several benefits such as seamless working by eliminating lack of standard operating procedures, facilitating transfer and maintenance of information as well as allowing for strategic development of a firm’s information system. Information system therefore can be used as a tool for competitive advantage and can strategically be used to add value to a firm’s customer service by maximising the efficiency of the supply chain as well as solving operational constraints. The second case was that of IT outsourcing gone wrong. Clean & Cure, a multinational company had engaged the services of XperTrans; a provider of human resource outsourcing (HRO) to provide its services all over the world in 44 countries. However, this was never to be, and XperTrans encountered so many problems and finally had to engage a consultancy firm to bail them out. This is a case that really